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Dean Allemang and James A Hendler. Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist : Effective Modeling in RDFS and OWL

Dean Allemang and James A Hendler
Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist: Effective Modeling in RDFS and OWL

Amsterdam/Boston, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers/Elsevier 2012, 384 pages

Contents

Preface
About the Authors
Chapter 1. What Is the Semantic Web?
What Is a Web?
Smart Web, Dumb Web
    Smart Web Applications
    A Connected Web Is a Smarter Web
Semantic Data
    A Distributed Web of Data
    Features of a Semantic Web
    What about the Round-Worlders?
    To Each Their Own
    There's Always One More
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 2. Semantic Modeling
Modeling for Human Communication
Explanation and Prediction
    Mediating Variability
    Variation and Classes
    Variation and Layers
    Expressivity in Modeling
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 3. RDF—The Basis of the Semantic Web
Distributing Data Across the Web
Merging Data from Multiple Sources
Namespaces, URIs, and Identity
    Expressing URIs in Print
    Standard Namespaces
Identifiers in the RDF Namespace
Challenge: RDF and Tabular Data
Higher-Order Relationships
Alternatives for Serialization
    N-Triples
    Notation 3 RDF (N3)
    RDF/XML
Blank Nodes
    Ordered Information in RDF
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 4. Semantic Web Application Architecture
RDF Parser/Serializer
    Other Data Sources—Converters and Scrapers
RDF Store
    RDF Data Standards and Interoperability of RDF Stores
    RDF Query Engines and SPARQL
    Comparison to Relational Queries
Application Code
    RDF-Backed Web Portals
Data Federation
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 5. RDF and Inferencing
Inference in the Semantic Web
    Virtues of Inference-Based Semantics
Where are the Smarts?
    Asserted Triples versus Inferred Triples
    When Does Inferencing Happen?
    Inferencing as Glue
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 6. RDF Schema
Schema Languages and Their Functions
What Does It Mean? Semantics as Inference
The RDF Schema Language
    Relationship Propagation through rdfs:subPropertyOf
    Typing Data by Usage—rdfs:domain and rdfs:range
    Combination of Domain and Range with rdfs:subClassOf
RDFS Modeling Combinations and Patterns
    Set Intersection
    Property Intersection
    Set Union
    Property Union
    Property Transfer
Challenges
    Term Reconciliation
    Instance-Level Data Integration
    Readable Labels with rdfs:label
    Data Typing Based on Use
    Filtering Undefined Data
    RDFS and Knowledge Discovery
Modeling with Domains and Ranges
    Multiple Domains/Ranges
Nonmodeling Properties in RDFS
    Cross-Referencing Files: rdfs:seeAlso
    Organizing Vocabularies: rdfs:isDefinedBy
    Model Documentation: rdfs:comment
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 7. RDFS-Plus
Inverse
    Challenge: Integrating Data that Do Not Want to Be Integrated
    Challenge: Using the Modeling Language to Extend the Modeling Language
    Challenge: The Marriage of Shakespeare
Symmetric Properties
    Using OWL to Extend OWL
Transitivity
    Challenge: Relating Parents to Ancestors
    Challenge: Layers of Relationships
    Managing Networks of Dependencies
Equivalence
    Equivalent Classes
    Equivalent Properties
    Same Individuals
    Challenge: Merging Data from Different Databases
Computing Sameness—Functional Properties
    Functional Properties
    Inverse Functional Properties
    Combining Functional and Inverse
        Functional Properties
    A Few More Constructs
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 8. Using RDFS-Plus in the Wild
SKOS
    Semantic Relations in SKOS
    Meaning of Semantic Relations
    Special Purpose Inference
    Published Subject Indicators
    SKOS in Action
FOAF
    People and Agents
    Names in FOAF
    Nicknames and Online Names
    Online Persona
    Groups of People
    Things People Make and Do
    Identity in FOAF
    It's Not What You Know, It's Who You Know
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 9. Basic OWL
Restrictions
    Example: Questions and Answers
    Adding “Restrictions”
    Kinds of Restrictions
Challenge Problems
    Challenge: Local Restriction of Ranges
    Challenge: Filtering Data Based on Explicit Type
    Challenge: Relationship Transfer in SKOS
Relationship Transfer in FOAF
Alternative Descriptions of Restrictions
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 10. Counting and Sets in OWL
Unions and Intersections
    Closing the World
    Enumerating Sets with owl:oneOf
     Differentiating Multiple Individuals
Cardinality
    Small Cardinality Limits
Set Complement
Disjoint Sets
Prerequisites Revisited
    No Prerequisites
    Counting Prerequisites
    Guarantees of Existence
Contradictions
Unsatisfiable Classes
    Propagation of Unsatisfiable Classes
Inferring Class Relationships
Reasoning with Individuals and with Classes
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 11. Using OWL in the Wild
The Federal Enterprise Architecture Reference
    Model Ontology
Reference Models and Composability
Resolving Ambiguity in the Model: Sets versus Individuals
Constraints between Models
OWL and Composition
    owl:Ontology
    owl:imports
Advantages of the Modeling Approach
The National Cancer Institute Ontology
Requirements of the NCI Ontology
Upper-Level Classes
Describing Classes in the NCI Ontology
Instance-Level Inferencing in the NCI Ontology
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 12. Good and Bad Modeling Practices
Getting Started
    Know What You Want
    Inference Is Key
Modeling for Reuse
    Insightful Names versus Wishful Names
Differentiating Individuals with owl:differentFrom
    Keeping Track of Classes and Individuals
    Model Testing
Common Modeling Errors
    Rampant Classism (Antipattern)
    Exclusivity (Antipattern)
    Objectification (Antipattern)
    Managing Identifiers for Classes (Antipattern)
    Creeping Conceptualization (Antipattern)
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 13. OWL Levels and Logic
OWL Dialects and Modeling Philosophy
    Provable Models
    Executable Models
OWL Full versus OWL DL
    Class/Individual Separation
    InverseFunctional  Datatypes
OWL Lite
Other Subsets of OWL
Beyond OWL 1.0
    Metamodeling
    Multipart Properties
    Qualified Cardinality
    Multiple Inverse Functional Properties
    Rules
Summary
    Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 14. Conclusions
Appendix
Frequently Asked Questions
Further Reading
Index